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使用if的假設語氣
1.    直述句與假設語氣
If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the picnic.
表達事實或現實中可能會發生的事情是直述句--現實生活中可能會發生
說話者判斷某事為事實
If I had a lot of money, I would buy a yacht.
表達與事實相反的狀態,稱之為「假設語氣」
說話者判斷某是與事實相反
2.    假設語氣的過去式
表示與現在事實相反
If he were ready, we would go.
If I had enough money, I would travel around the world.
Note:在if的條件句中,be動詞用were,但口語中可用was
Note:主要子句一定要用助動詞過去式
If +S + 動詞過去式,S+ would     +動詞原形
                      Could
                      Might
                      Should(第一人稱)
練習
If it            fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.
If I              (know)her phone number, I              call her.
What              you say if you             (talk) with an alien?
If I            rich, I            buy the mansion.
3.    假設語氣的過去完成式
表示與過去事實相反的狀態
If I had left ten minutes earlier, I would not have missed the train.
She would have died if the climber had not found her.

If +S + 動詞過去完成式,S+ would    +have +past participle
                      Could
                      Might
                      Should(第一人稱)
4.    if 子句和主要子句的時間點不一致時
If I had taken the medicine then, I might be fine now.
Note:條件句表示與過去事實相反,所以用「過去完成式」
      主要子句中有 “now” 是以假設語氣的過去式來表現與現在事實相反的假設,所以 如果主要子句與從屬子句各自表示不同的時間點,就必須要分開考慮。
練習
If you                        a little more careful, you         not          
             Such a mistake.
She                                   in time for school if she          
         Up earlier.
If I                        the train, I                       present at the party now.
Wish :真希望~無法實現的願望
I wish I knew her telephone number.
I wish I hadn’t bought such an expensive bag.
Note: wish 後面一定要用假設語氣,不可以用現在式
Wish 子句後的助動詞
使用could表達「能夠」;使用would表達「會,打算,願意」
I wish I could play the guitar as well as you.
I wish my father would give up smoking.
比較:
I wish she had been at home when I called.
I wished she were at home when I called.
I wish I were a bird.
I wished I were a bird.
練習
我真希望我知道他的住址
I wish I                 (know)his home address.
我真希望她當時沒對我說謊
I wish she                        (not tell) a lie to me.
當時我真希望她保持安靜
I                  (wish) she kept quiet.
As if:「當時好像」

He talks as if he were an expert in economics.他說的好像他是經濟學專家一樣
You looks as if you had seen a ghost.你看起來好像之前看到鬼似的
He talked as if he were an expert in economics.他當時說的好像他是經濟學專家一樣
You looked as if you had seen a ghost.你當時看起來好像之前看到鬼似的
As if 後面也可以加直述句。當說話者判斷應該是事實的時候as if子句可以用直述句
You talk as if you are angry.(you are angry應該是事實)
You talks as if you were angry.(you are not angry應該是事實)
As if 後 +to V
Her guest suddenly stood up as if to leave.
練習:
你表現的彷彿你是明星
You behave as if you            a star.
她的表情看起來好像過去從來不曾看過我
She looked as though she             never          me before.
表示未來的假設語氣
1.    were to
If you were to win the lottery, what would you do?
If you were to present her with a bunch of roses, she would be pleased.
2.    should
If our daughter should need our help, she would call us.
當if子句中使用should表示說話者判斷「實現的可能性很低」
練習
1.    What would happen if he were to tell others about our secret?
2.    If you should be unable to come, please let me know soon.

Posted by alina9290035 at 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(1) 引用(0) 人氣()


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  • 祥祥
  • 請問"在if的條件句中,be動詞用were,但口語中可用was"是不受限於主詞嘛?謝謝你

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